10.4. TLS options

The syslog-ng application can encrypt incoming and outgoing syslog message flows using TLS if you use the network() or syslog() drivers.

Note

The format of the TLS connections used by syslog-ng is similar to using syslog-ng and stunnel, but the source IP information is not lost.

To encrypt connections, use the transport("tls") and tls() options in the source and destination statements.

The tls() option can include the following settings:

ca-dir()

Accepted values: Directory name
Default: none

Description: Name of a directory, that contains a set of trusted CA certificates in PEM format. The CA certificate files have to be named after the 32-bit hash of the subject's name. This naming can be created using the c_rehash utility in openssl. For an example, see Procedure 10.2.1, Configuring TLS on the syslog-ng clients. The syslog-ng OSE application uses the CA certificates in this directory to validate the certificate of the peer.

cert-file()

Accepted values: Filename
Default: none

Description: Name of a file, that contains an X.509 certificate (or a certificate chain) in PEM format, suitable as a TLS certificate, matching the private key set in the key-file() option. The syslog-ng OSE application uses this certificate to authenticate the syslog-ng OSE client on the destination server. If the file contains a certificate chain, the file must begin with the certificate of the host, followed by the CA certificate that signed the certificate of the host, and any other signing CAs in order.

cipher-suite()

Accepted values: Name of a cipher, or a colon-separated list
Default: Depends on the OpenSSL version that syslog-ng OSE uses

Description: Specifies the cipher, hash, and key-exchange algorithms used for the encryption, for example, ECDHE-ECDSA-AES256-SHA384. The list of available algorithms depends on the version of OpenSSL used to compile syslog-ng OSE. To specify multiple ciphers, separate the cipher names with a colon, and enclose the list between double-quotes, for example:

cipher-suite("ECDHE-RSA-AES256-GCM-SHA384:ECDHE-ECDSA-AES256-GCM-SHA384")

For a list of available algorithms, execute the openssl ciphers -v command. The first column of the output contains the name of the algorithms to use in the cipher-suite() option, the second column specifies which encryption protocol uses the algorithm (for example, TLSv1.2). That way, the cipher-suite() also determines the encryption protocol used in the connection: to disable SSLv3, use an algorithm that is available only in TLSv1.2, and that both the client and the server supports. You can also specify the encryption protocols using Section ssl-options().

You can also use the following command to automatically list only ciphers permitted in a specific encryption protocol, for example, TLSv1.2:

echo "cipher-suite(\"$(openssl ciphers -v | grep TLSv1.2 | awk '{print $1}' | xargs echo -n | sed 's/ /:/g' | sed -e 's/:$//')\")"

Note that starting with version 3.10, when syslog-ng OSE receives TLS-encrypted connections, the order of ciphers set on the syslog-ng OSE server takes precedence over the client settings.

crl-dir()

Accepted values: Directory name
Default: none

Description: Name of a directory that contains the Certificate Revocation Lists for trusted CAs. Similarly to ca-dir() files, use the 32-bit hash of the name of the issuing CAs as filenames. The extension of the files must be .r0.

dhparam-file()

Accepted values: string (filename)
Default: none

Description: Specifies a file containing Diffie-Hellman parameters, generated using the openssl dhparam utility. Note that syslog-ng OSE supports only DH parameter files in the PEM format. If you do not set this parameter, syslog-ng OSE uses the 2048-bit MODP Group, as described in RFC 3526.

ecdh-curve-list()

Accepted values: string [colon-separated list]
Default: none

Description: A colon-separated list that specifies the curves that are permitted in the connection when using Elliptic Curve Cryptography (ECC).

This option is only available when syslog-ng is compiled with OpenSSL version 1.0.2 or later. In the case of older versions, prime256v1 (NIST P-256) is used.

The following example curves work for all versions of OpenSSL that are equal to or later than version 1.0.2:

ecdh-curve-list("prime256v1:secp384r1")

key-file()

Accepted values: Filename
Default: none

Description: The name of a file that contains an unencrypted private key in PEM format, suitable as a TLS key. If properly configured, the syslog-ng OSE application uses this private key and the matching certificate (set in the cert-file() option) to authenticate the syslog-ng OSE client on the destination server.

peer-verify()

Accepted values: optional-trusted | optional-untrusted | required-trusted | required-untrusted | yes | no
Default: required-trusted

Description: Verification method of the peer, the four possible values is a combination of two properties of validation:

  • whether the peer is required to provide a certificate (required or optional prefix), and

  • whether the certificate provided needs to be valid or not.

The following table summarizes the possible options and their results depending on the certificate of the peer.

 The remote peer has:
no certificate invalid certificate valid certificate
Local peer-verify() setting optional-untrusted TLS-encryption TLS-encryption TLS-encryption
optional-trusted TLS-encryption rejected connection TLS-encryption
required-untrusted rejected connection TLS-encryption TLS-encryption
required-trusted rejected connection rejected connection TLS-encryption

For untrusted certificates only the existence of the certificate is checked, but it does not have to be valid — syslog-ng accepts the certificate even if it is expired, signed by an unknown CA, or its CN and the name of the machine mismatches.

Warning

When validating a certificate, the entire certificate chain must be valid, including the CA certificate. If any certificate of the chain is invalid, syslog-ng OSE will reject the connection.

Starting with syslog-ng OSE version 3.10, you can also use a simplified configuration method for the peer-verify option, simply setting it to yes or no. The following table summarizes the possible options and their results depending on the certificate of the peer.

 The remote peer has:
no certificate invalid certificate valid certificate
Local peer-verify() setting no (optional-untrusted) TLS-encryption TLS-encryption TLS-encryption
yes (required-trusted) rejected connection rejected connection TLS-encryption

pkcs12-file()

Accepted values: Filename
Default: none

Description: The name of a PKCS #12 file that contains an unencrypted private key, an X.509 certificate, and an optional set of trusted CA certificates.

If this option is used in the configuration, the value of key-file() and cert-file() will be omitted.

You can use the ca-dir() option together with pkcs12-file(). However, this is optional because the PKCS #12 file may contain CA certificates as well.

Passphrase is currently not supported.

Example 10.6. Using pkcs12-file()

In the following example, the first command creates a single PKCS #12 file from the private key, X.509 certificate, and CA certificate files. Then, the second half of the example uses the same PKCS #12 file in the syslog-ng configuration.

Example: 

$ openssl pkcs12 -export -inkey server.key -in server.crt -certfile ca.crt -out server.p12

Example configuration: 

source s_tls {
    syslog(
        transport(tls)
        tls(
            pkcs12-file("/path/to/server.p12")
            ca-dir("/path/to/cadir") # optional
            peer-verify(yes)
        )
    );
};

ssl-options()

Accepted values: comma-separated list of the following options: no-sslv2, no-sslv3, no-tlsv1, no-tlsv11, no-tlsv12, none
Default: no-sslv2

Description: Sets the specified options of the SSL/TLS protocols. Currently, you can use it to disable specific protocol versions. Note that disabling a newer protocol version (for example, TLSv1.1) does not automatically disable older versions of the same protocol (for example, TLSv1.0). For example, use the following option to permit using only TLSv1.1 or newer:

ssl-options(no-sslv2, no-sslv3, no-tlsv1)

Using ssl-options(none) means that syslog-ng OSE does not specify any restrictions on the protocol used. However, in this case, the underlying OpenSSL library can restrict the available protocols, for example, certain OpenSSL versions automatically disable SSLv2.

This option is available in syslog-ng OSE 3.7 and newer.

Example 10.7. Using ssl-options

The following destination explicitly disables SSL and TLSv1.0

destination demo_tls_destination {
    network("172.16.177.147" port(6514)
    transport("tls")
    tls( ca_dir("/etc/syslog-ng/ca.d")
         key_file("/etc/syslog-ng/cert.d/clientkey.pem")
         cert_file("/etc/syslog-ng/cert.d/clientcert.pem")
         ssl-options(no-sslv2, no-sslv3, no-tlsv1) )
    ); };

trusted-dn()

Accepted values: list of accepted distinguished names
Default: none

Description: To accept connections only from hosts using certain certificates signed by the trusted CAs, list the distinguished names of the accepted certificates in this parameter. For example using trusted-dn("*, O=Example Inc, ST=Some-State, C=*") will accept only certificates issued for the Example Inc organization in Some-State state.

trusted-keys()

Accepted values: list of accepted SHA-1 fingerprints
Default: none

Description: To accept connections only from hosts using certain certificates having specific SHA-1 fingerprints, list the fingerprints of the accepted certificates in this parameter. For example trusted-keys("SHA1:00:EF:ED:A4:CE:00:D1:14:A4:AB:43:00:EF:00:91:85:FF:89:28:8F", "SHA1:0C:42:00:3E:B2:60:36:64:00:E2:83:F0:80:46:AD:00:A8:9D:00:15").

To find the fingerprint of a certificate, you can use the following command: openssl x509 -in <certificate-filename> -sha1 -noout -fingerprint

Note

When using the trusted-keys() and trusted-dn() parameters, note the following:

  • First, the trusted-keys() parameter is checked. If the fingerprint of the peer is listed, the certificate validation is performed.

  • If the fingerprint of the peer is not listed in the trusted-keys() parameter, the trusted-dn() parameter is checked. If the DN of the peer is not listed in the trusted-dn() parameter, the authentication of the peer fails and the connection is closed.